What you should know about home equity lines of credit
This booklet was initially prepared by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has made technical updates to the booklet to reflect new mortgage rules under Title XIV of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). A larger update of this booklet is planned in the future to reflect other changes under the Dodd-Frank Act and to align with other CFPB resources and tools for consumers as part of the CFPB’s broader mission to educate consumers. Consumers are encouraged to visit the CPFB’s website at consumerfinance.gov/owning-a-home to access interactive tools and resources for mortgage shoppers, which are expected to be available beginning in 2014.
Table of contents
- What is a home equity line of credit?
If you are in the market for credit, a home equity plan is one of several options that might be right for you. Before making a decision, however, you should weigh carefully the costs of a home equity line against the benefits. Shop for the credit terms that best meet your borrowing needs without posing undue financial risks. And remember, failure to repay the amounts you’ve borrowed, plus interest, could mean the loss of your home.
1.1 Home equity plan checklist
Ask your lender to help you fill out this worksheet.
2. What is a home equity line of credit?
A home equity line of credit is a form of revolving credit in which your home serves as collateral. Because a home often is a consumer’s most valuable asset, many homeowners use home equity credit lines only for major items, such as education, home improvements, or medical bills, and choose not to use them for day-to-day expenses.
With a home equity line, you will be approved for a specific amount of credit. Many lenders set the credit limit on a home equity line by taking a percentage (say, 75 percent) of the home’s appraised value and subtracting from that the balance owed on the existing mortgage. For example:
In determining your actual credit limit, the lender will also consider your ability to repay the loan (principal and interest) by looking at your income, debts, and other financial obligations as well as your credit history.
Many home equity plans set a fixed period during which you can borrow money, such as 10 years. At the end of this “draw period,” you may be allowed to renew the credit line. If your plan does not allow renewals, you will not be able to borrow additional money once the period has ended. Some plans may call for payment in full of any outstanding balance at the end of the period. Others may allow repayment over a fixed period (the “repayment period”), for example, 10 years.
Once approved for a home equity line of credit, you will most likely be able to borrow up to your credit limit whenever you want. Typically, you will use special checks to draw on your line. Under some plans, borrowers can use a credit card or other means to draw on the line.
There may be other limitations on how you use the line. Some plans may require you to borrow a minimum amount each time you draw on the line (for example, $300) or keep a minimum amount outstanding. Some plans may also require that you take an initial advance when the line is set up.
2.1 What should you look for when shopping for a plan?
If you decide to apply for a home equity line of credit, look for the plan that best meets your particular needs. Read the credit agreement carefully, and examine the terms and conditions of various plans, including the annual percentage rate (APR) and the costs of establishing the plan. Remember, though, that the APR for a home equity line is based on the interest rate alone and will not reflect closing costs and other fees and charges, so you’ll need to compare these costs, as well as the APRs, among lenders.
2.1.1 Variable interest rates
Home equity lines of credit typically involve variable rather than fixed interest rates. The variable rate must be based on a publicly available index (such as the prime rate published in some major daily newspapers or a U.S. Treasury bill rate). In such cases, the interest rate you pay for the line of credit will change, mirroring changes in the value of the index. Most lenders cite the interest rate you will pay as the value of the index at a particular time, plus a “margin,” such as 2 percentage points. Because the cost of borrowing is tied directly to the value of the index, it is important to find out which index is used, how often the value of the index changes, and how high it has risen in the past. It is also important to note the amount of the margin.
Lenders sometimes offer a temporarily discounted interest rate for home equity lines—an “introductory” rate that is unusually low for a short period, such as six months.
Variable-rate plans secured by a dwelling must, by law, have a ceiling (or cap) on how much your interest rate may increase over the life of the plan. Some variable-rate plans limit how much your payment may increase and how low your interest rate may fall if the index drops.
Some lenders allow you to convert from a variable interest rate to a fixed rate during the life of the plan, or let you convert all or a portion of your line to a fixed-term installment loan.
2.2 Costs of establishing and maintaining a home equity line
Many of the costs of setting up a home equity line of credit are similar to those you pay when you get a mortgage. For example:
- A fee for a property appraisal to estimate the value of your home;
- An application fee, which may not be refunded if you are turned down for credit;
- Up-front charges, such as one or more “points” (one point equals 1 percent of the credit limit); and
- Closing costs, including fees for attorneys, title search, mortgage preparation and filing, property and title insurance, and taxes.
In addition, you may be subject to certain fees during the plan period, such as annual membership or maintenance fees and a transaction fee every time you draw on the credit line.
You could find yourself paying hundreds of dollars to establish the plan. And if you were to draw only a small amount against your credit line, those initial charges would substantially increase the cost of the funds borrowed. On the other hand, because the lender’s risk is lower than for other forms of credit, as your home serves as collateral, annual percentage rates for home equity lines are generally lower than rates for other types of credit. The interest you save could o set the costs of establishing and maintaining the line. Moreover, some lenders waive some or all of the closing costs.
2.3 How will you repay your home equity plan?
Before entering into a plan, consider how you will pay back the money you borrow. Some plans set a minimum monthly payment that includes a portion of the principal (the amount you borrow) plus accrued interest. But, unlike with typical installment loan agreements, the portion of your payment that goes toward principal may not be enough to repay the principal by the end of the term. Other plans may allow payment of only the interest during the life of the plan, which means that you pay nothing toward the principal. If you borrow $10,000, you will owe that amount when the payment plan ends.
Regardless of the minimum required payment on your home equity line, you may choose to pay more, and many lenders o er a choice of payment options. However, some lenders may require you to pay special fees or penalties if you choose to pay more, so check with your lender. Many consumers choose to pay down the principal regularly as they do with other loans. For example, if you use your line to buy a boat, you may want to pay it o as you would a typical boat loan.
Whatever your payment arrangements during the life of the plan—whether you pay some, a little, or none of the principal amount of the loan—when the plan ends, you may have to pay the entire balance owed, all at once. You must be prepared to make this “balloon payment” by refinancing it with the lender, by obtaining a loan from another lender, or by some other means. If you are unable to make the balloon payment, you could lose your home.
If your plan has a variable interest rate, your monthly payments may change. Assume, for example, that you borrow $10,000 under a plan that calls for interest-only payments. At a 10 percent interest rate, your monthly payments would be $83. If the rate rises over time to 15 percent, your monthly payments will increase to $125. Similarly, if you are making payments that cover interest plus some portion of the principal, your monthly payments may increase, unless your agreement calls for keeping payments the same throughout the plan period.
If you sell your home, you will probably be required to pay o your home equity line in full immediately. If you are likely to sell your home in the near future, consider whether it makes sense to pay the up-front costs of setting up a line of credit. Also keep in mind that renting your home may be prohibited under the terms of your agreement.
2.4 Line of credit vs. traditional second mortgage loans
If you are thinking about a home equity line of credit, you might also want to consider a traditional second mortgage loan. This type of loan provides you with a fixed amount of money, repayable over a fixed period. In most cases, the payment schedule calls for equal payments that pay o the entire loan within the loan period. You might consider a second mortgage instead of a home equity line if, for example, you need a set amount for a specific purpose, such as an addition to your home.
In deciding which type of loan best suits your needs, consider the costs under the two alternatives. Look at both the APR and other charges. Do not, however, simply compare the APRs, because the APRs on the two types of loans are figured differently:
- The APR for a traditional second mortgage loan takes into account the interest rate charged plus points and other finance charges.
- The APR for a home equity line of credit is based on the periodic interest rate alone. It does not include points or other charges.
2.4.1 Disclosures from lenders
The federal Truth in Lending Act requires lenders to disclose the important terms and costs of their home equity plans, including the APR, miscellaneous charges, the payment terms, and information about any variable-rate feature. And in general, neither the lender nor anyone else may charge a fee until after you have received this information. You usually get these disclosures when you receive an application form, and you will get additional disclosures before the plan is opened. If any term (other than a variable-rate feature) changes before the plan is opened, the lender must return all fees if you decide not to enter into the plan because of the change. Lenders are also required to provide you with a list of homeownership counseling organizations in your area.
When you open a home equity line, the transaction puts your home at risk. If the home involved is your principal dwelling, the Truth in Lending Act gives you three days from the day the account was opened to cancel the credit line. This right allows you to change your mind for any reason. You simply inform the lender in writing within the three-day period. The lender must then cancel its security interest in your home and return all fees— including any application and appraisal fees—paid to open the account.
The Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act of 1994 (HOEPA) addresses certain unfair practices and establishes requirements for certain loans with high rates and fees, including certain additional disclosures. HOEPA now covers some HELOCs. You can find out more information by contacting the CFPB at the website address and phone number listed in the Contact information appendix, below.
2.5 What if the lender freezes or reduces your line of credit?
Plans generally permit lenders to freeze or reduce a credit line if the value of the home “declines significantly” or when the lender “reasonably believes” that you will be unable to make your payments due to a “material change” in your financial circumstances. If this happens, you may want to:
- Talk with your lender. Find out what caused the lender to freeze or reduce your credit line and what, if anything, you can do to restore it. You may be able to provide additional information to restore your line of credit, such as documentation showing that your house has retained its value or that there has not been a “material change” in your financial circumstances. You may want to get copies of your credit reports (go to the CFPB’s website at consumerfinance.gov/askcfpb/5/can-i-review-my-credit-report.html for information about how to get free copies of your credit reports) to make sure all the information in them is correct. If your lender suggests getting a new appraisal, be sure you discuss appraisal firms in advance so that you know they will accept the new appraisal as valid.
- Shop around for another line of credit. If your lender does not want to restore your line of credit, shop around to see what other lenders have to o er. If another lender is willing to offer you a line of credit, you may be able to pay o your original line of credit and take out another one. Keep in mind, however, that you may need to pay some of the same application fees you paid for your original line of credit.
This glossary provides general definitions for terms commonly used in the real estate market. They may have different legal meanings depending on the context.
For more information about mortgages, including home equity lines of credit, visit consumerfinance.gov/mortgage. For answers to questions about mortgages and other financial topics, visit consumerfinance.gov/askcfpb. You may also visit the CFPB’s website at consumerfinance.gov/owning-a-home to access interactive tools and resources for mortgage shoppers, which are expected to be available beginning in 2014.
Housing counselors can be very helpful, especially for first-time home buyers or if you’re having trouble paying your mortgage. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) supports housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide free or low-cost advice. You can search for HUD-approved housing counseling agencies in your area on the CFPB’s web site at consumerfinance.gov/find-a-housing-counselor or by calling HUD’s interactive toll-free number at 800-569-4287.
The company that collects your mortgage payments is your loan servicer. This may not be the same company as your lender. If you have concerns about how your loan is being serviced or another aspect of your mortgage, you may wish to submit a complaint to the CFPB at consumerfinance.gov/complaint or by calling (855) 411-CFPB (2372).
When you submit a complaint to the CFPB, the CFPB will forward your complaint to the company and work to get a response. Companies have 15 days to respond to you and the CFPB. You can review the company’s response and give feedback to the CFPB.
For additional information or to submit a complaint, you can contact the CFPB or one of the other federal agencies listed below, depending on the type of institution. If you are not sure which agency to contact, you can submit a complaint to the CFPB and if the CFPB determines that another agency would be better able to assist you, the CFPB will refer your complaint to that agency and let you know.